TYPES, NATURE OF CONFLICTS, AGENT COSTS AND RESOLUTION IN AGENT RELATIONSHIP IN AN ORGANIZATION
The agency problem can be a really big issue in the finance world. Find out Agency Theory: Relationships of Principals & Agents. What Are. Details: Category: Business Finance: Published: 19 July THE AGENCY THEORY AND PROBLEM. An agency relationship arises where one or more. In corporate finance, the agency problem usually refers to a conflict of The agency problem does not exist without a relationship between a.
Solutions to these problems: If managers are not performing, they can be threatened with firing during the annual general meeting or even appointing other managers. Shareholders can threaten to sell the company to another company. The second agency problem involves the conflict between, on one hand, owners who possess the majority or controlling interest in the firm and, on the other hand, the minority or non-controlling owners.
Here the non-controlling owners can be thought of as the principals and the controlling owners as the agents, and the difficulty lies in assuring that the former are not expropriated by the latter.
Examples of Agency Problems in Financial Markets
Thus if minority shareholders enjoy veto rights in relation to particular decisions, it can give rise to a species of this second agency problem. Similar problems can arise between ordinary and preference shareholders, and between senior and junior creditors in bankruptcy when creditors are the effective owners of the firm. The third agency problem involves the conflict between the firm itself—including, particularly, its owners—and the other parties with whom the firm contracts, such as creditors, employees, government and customers.
Here the difficulty lies in assuring that the firm, as agent, does not behave opportunistically toward these various other principals—such as by expropriating creditors, exploiting workers, or misleading consumers.
Shareholders invest funds in high risk investments. Thiese investments can eithr succeed and get high returns or fail leading to huge loses.
Conflict therefore can arise in the following instances.
Companies operate in the environment with mandate from the government. The owners may affect the position of the government by engaging in illegal business activities, tax, failure to take part in CSR and avoiding investment in certain areas of the economy. The auditors may affect the interest of the shareholders causing agency problems in the following ways: Multiple principals will face coordination costs, which will inhibit their ability to engage in collective action.
These in turn will interact with agency problems in two ways. First, difficulties of coordinating between principals will lead them to delegate more of their decision-making to agents.
Agency Relationships in Financial Management - My Investment
The majority of stocks are owned by institutional investors, such as insurance companies, pension funds, and mutual funds. Institutional investors can exercise considerable influence over most of the firm's operations.
The threat of firing: Shareholders can nominate and elect the board of directors, who oversees the company. Through the board of directors, shareholders can oust management with poor performance.
The threat of takeovers: If a firm's stock is undervalued due to poor management, a competitor may acquire the firm even at the opposition of its management. The acquirer can replace management with their. Shareholders Through Managers vs. Creditors Managers are the agent of both shareholders and creditors.
Shareholders empower managers to manage the firm. Creditors empower managers to use the loan. Taking riskier projects than those agreed to at the outset: Creditors lend money to a firm based on its perceived business and financial risk.
If shareholders take riskier investments, the shareholders receive the full benefit of success, but the creditors may share the losses in case of failure. Borrowing more debt to significantly increase dividends or repurchase outstanding stock: The firm becomes riskier because of increased leverage.
Creditors are hurt because more debt ;will claim against the firm's cash flows and assets. To protect themselves against shareholders, creditors often include restrictive covenants in debt agreements.