Military history of Australia - Wikipedia
Australian Military Forces - Army Medal Section, Any further change of address of the British Commonwealth and who are eligible for the award of . east by the west coast of the American Continent and on the west by a line running . (b) There is a special rule in relation to the last six months of operational service up. When Britain declared war on Germany on 4 August , most Australians for a decisive victory before the military and industrial strength of the United States. The year finds us living in another world in all or most of these matters. People would refer to themselves as Australians in relation to Britain (for example , no national flag (until late in ), and no Australian honours or medals. The Bill was tabled for reconsideration by the Federal Military Committee in June .
Therefore rest in peace. There is no difference between the Johnnies and the Mehmets to us where they lie side by side here in this country of ours.
You, the mothers who sent their sons from far away countries, wipe away your tears. Your sons are now lying in our bosom and are in peace. After having lost their lives on this land, they have become our sons as well.
When the AIF divisions arrived in France, the war on the Western Front had long settled into a stalemate, with the opposing armies facing each other from trench systems that extended across Belgium and north-east France, from the English Channel to the Swiss border.
The development of machine-guns and artillery favoured defence over attack and compounded the impasse, which lasted until the final months of the war.
While the overall hostile stalemate continued throughout andthe Australians and other allied armies repeatedly attacked, preceded by massive artillery bombardments intended to cut barbed wire and destroy enemy defences.
After these bombardments, waves of attacking infantry emerged from the trenches into no man's land and advanced towards enemy positions. The surviving Germans, protected by deep and heavily reinforced bunkers, were usually able to repel the attackers with machine-gun fire and artillery support from the rear.
These attacks often resulted in limited territorial gains followed, in turn, by German counter-attacks. Both sides sustained heavy losses. In July Australian infantry were introduced to this type of combat at Fromelles, where they suffered 5, casualties in 24 hours.
By the end of the year about 40, Australians had been killed or wounded on the Western Front. In a further 76, Australians became casualties in battles, such Bullecourt, Messines, and the four-month campaign around Ypres, known as the Battle of Passchendaele. In March the German army launched its final offensive of the war, hoping for a decisive victory before the military and industrial strength of the United States could be fully mobilised in support of the allies.
Commonwealth Parliament from 1901 to World War I
The Germans initially met with great success, advancing 64 kilometres past the region of the Somme battles, before the offensive lost momentum. Between April and November the stalemate of the preceding years began to give way, as the allies combined infantry, artillery, tanks, and aircraft more effectively, demonstrated in the Australian capture of Hamel spur on 4 July In early October the Australian divisions withdrew from the front for rest and refitting; they were preparing to return when Germany surrendered on 11 November.
Unlike their counterparts in France and Belgium, the Australians in the Middle East fought a mobile war against the Ottoman Empire in conditions completely different from the mud and stagnation of the Western Front. The light horsemen and their mounts had to survive extreme heat, harsh terrain, and water shortages. Nevertheless, casualties were comparatively light, with 1, Australians killed or wounded in three years of war.
This campaign began in with Australian troops participating in the defence of the Suez Canal and the allied reconquest of the Sinai peninsular. In the following year Australian and other allied troops advanced into Palestine and captured Gaza and Jerusalem; by they had occupied Lebanon and Syria. On 30 October Turkey sued for peace.
Australians also served at sea and in the newly formed flying corps. The First World War was the first armed conflict in which aircraft were used. About 3, Australian airmen served in the Middle East and France with the Australian Flying Corps, mainly in observation capacities or providing infantry support. The first battalion of the Australian Commonwealth Horse, a mounted infantry unit, sailed for South Africa on 19 February In all, Australia sent eight battalions but only four arrived in time to take part.
Military conscription during peace time was not supported.
Australia–United Kingdom relations - Wikipedia
Section 51 vi of the Constitution gave the new Commonwealth Parliament the power to make laws with respect to the naval and military defence of the Commonwealth. On Federation, the Governor-General became Commander-in-Chief, although it was not until 1 March that the states transferred their naval and military forces to the Commonwealth of Australia and the following year were formally named the Commonwealth Naval Forces and Commonwealth Military Forces.
He outlined the matters that would receive the attention of the First Parliament, including provision for its defence: As soon as practicable after the necessary Act has been passed, means will be taken for the judicious strengthening of the Defence of the Commonwealth.
Extravagant expenditure will be avoided, and reliance will be placed, to the fullest reasonable extent, in our citizen soldiery. It is confidently hoped that the services of a most able and distinguished officer will be secured for the supreme Military command.
The Bill was tabled for reconsideration by the Federal Military Committee in Junebut it lapsed and was subsequently withdrawn on 26 March He was hopeful that this new Bill would be passed quickly, noting that the debate over his first Bill had been exhaustive with 43 of the 75 members of the House of Representatives speaking on the matter, their speeches extending to over pages of Hansard: For the most part, those speeches were of a most exhaustive character—a fact which I mention simply to show that this subject has already been well discussed by honorable members.
To my mind, this Bill has been better arranged than was the original measure. For the most part, what was in the old Bill is to be found in this one; but in several respects it will be found that this measure is a great improvement on the last. Forrest assured members that it was: It does not appropriate one farthing. It does not declare how much shall be spent, or the way in which the votes of Parliament shall be expended.
It deals with the division of the forces into permanent troops, militia, volunteers, and reserves The measure recognises that the military and naval forces of the Commonwealth shall be constituted almost entirely of citizen soldiers, and that the primary duty of such forces is to defend Australia from invasion or attack.
Provision is made for a permanent force, which will, under existing conditions, be only sufficient for the purpose of manning the forts and ships, working the submarine mines, arid instructing the citizen forces. With the exception of this permanent force which does not number, at present, more than 1, men for the whole Commonwealthall the rest will be citizen soldiers.
Indigenous Australians at war | Department of Veterans' Affairs
The citizen forces are divided into three classes, namely, militia, or partially-paid forces; volunteers, who get no pay, a capitation allowance being provided for corps purposes; and reserve forces, consisting of the members of rifle clubs and others, who may be enlisted as reservists. A second Defence Act was passed in Australia had always been conscious of its geographic isolation from Britain and that it was situated in a region of very different cultures.
According to McCay, the new arrangements were designed to: The Council met only twice in ten years, and it was ultimately abolished in In Decemberhe announced a scheme of compulsory military training to the House of Representatives. After his return from the Imperial Conference,  he stated: We now propose a new organization for the defence of Australia. Therefore, we are about to initiate a departure, contemplated at the inception of Federation, and intended to lay the foundation of our defence upon a basis as wide as the Commonwealth, without distinction of States.
On the contrary, every decade brings us into closer and closer touch with the subjects of other peoples planted in our neighbourhood, and with the interests of other peoples more or less antagonistic to our own. While the Defence Acts of and had empowered the Commonwealth Government to call up unexempted males in times of war, this new Bill sought to make training and service compulsory in time of peace.
According to Member for Richmond, Thomas Ewing: This responsibility is not a small one for any Parliament to undertake. It is not a simple matter to protect any country; and the protection of any vast, half-developed territory, sparsely populated and enormously rich in proportion to the population is indeed difficult.
It is more difficult here, beset as the Commonwealth is with greater dangers and difficulties in regard to the future life and preservation of white occupation, than exist in any part of the British Dominions. But Parliament has accepted the responsibility, and we have to face the problem. Another advantage of a force like this would be that the men would all be recruited at one time, instead of in dribs and drabs, as they are now, under our present haphazard system.