I. Effects of Potassium on Calcium Absorption'. C. Johansen depressed Ca content and concentration in barley plants growing in nutrient solutions of low. Potassium, calcium and magnesium play an important role in soil-plant relationships. These elements are not only essential to the complex biochemistry of plant. Applying too much calcium and magnesium can cause a potassium deficiency; the K/Ca and K/Mg The plant and the bacteria have a symbiotic relationship.
The Carioca comes from the Middle American gene pool and has carioca-type grains beige tegument with brown streaksindeterminate growth habit with long guides type III and intermediate cycle. Twelve plants per treatment were used as the experimental units. Three seeds per pot were sown on March 18,but only one plant per pot was kept after thinning at the first trifoliate leaf stage V3.
To determine the calcium concentration, 5 g samples of the dry mass of the stem and leaves at the R6 stage and the grains at the R9 stage were finely ground in an analytical knife mill to obtain particles smaller than 1 mm. The resulting flour was exposed to nitric-perchloric digestion, and the reading was performed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer according to the method described by Domingues et al.
The second experiment was conducted from September to December to evaluate the effect of higher calcium concentrations than those used in Experiment 1 on plant growth, grain yield and the partitioning of calcium, potassium and magnesium.
The same experimental design as the previous experiment was used. The main plots consisted of six calcium concentrations in the nutrient solution: Micronutrients were supplied as in Experiment 1.
Interactions between nutrients
Twenty-four plants per treatment were used as the experimental units. Three seeds per pot were sown on September 15,but only one plant per pot was kept after thinning at the first trifoliate leaf stage V3. In each developmental stage, third leaf trifoliate V4flowering R6pod filling R8 and maturation R9six plants were collected from each treatment for the determination of the dry mass of the plant. The roots were washed in running water to remove the sand.
At pod filling, the number of pods per plant and the dry mass of the pods were also evaluated.
The determination of the calcium, potassium and magnesium concentrations was performed with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer using a wavelength of The data were subjected to variance analysis considering the completely randomized design with split plots and six repetitions, except for the nutrient concentration in the tissues, for which three repetitions were used.
When the effect of the calcium concentration and the calcium concentration x cultivar interaction were significant, regression analysis was done by the method of orthogonal polynomials, and the equation at the higher significant grade was retained. In cases in which the second grade equation fitted by regression analysis was also significant, the point of maximum or minimum technical efficiency was estimated by the equation being the coefficients of the first and second grade, respectively, obtained from the estimated equation of regression analysis.
Statistical analyses were performed using the Microsoft r Office Excel spreadsheet and the Sigma Plot and Genes softwares. However, the main effects calcium concentration and cultivar were significant for the dry mass of the stems, leaves and shoot, the number of pods and grains per plant, the grain yield and the calcium concentration in the grains.
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For the calcium concentration in the stems and leaves, a significant effect was observed only for the calcium concentration in the nutrient solution. A significant effect for the calcium concentration was previously described for the dry mass of the shoot Favaro et al. Significant differences between snap bean cultivars for the calcium accumulation in the pods were previously reported by Pomper and Grusak Therefore, the increase in calcium concentration in the rooting medium was efficient to increase plant growth and grain yield in the bean plants, and the genetic variability among bean cultivars can be observed.
For the dry mass of the stems, leaves and shoot and the calcium concentration in the stems, significant effects were found for the calcium concentration in the nutrient solution, but the regressions of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd grades were not significant Table 1.
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For these characteristics, there was no response, linear, quadratic or cubic, to the calcium concentration in the rooting medium. Other models showed no biological explanation and therefore were not presented. However, common bean plants grown with different calcium concentrations in the nutrient solution over a period of 45 days showed a quadratic response for the dry mass of the shoot Silva et al.
In the present work, the common bean plants were grown until the end of their cycle using different calcium concentrations, and this can justify the differences observed. The number of pods and grains per plant and the grain yield increased due to the effect of the calcium concentration in the nutrient solution in the range between 1. In snap beans, Favaro, Braga Neto, Takahashi, Miglioranza, and Ida reported that the number of green pods harvested days after anthesis also increased with the calcium concentration in the nutrient solution.
Similar effects were recorded by Domingues et al. These results might be due to the effect of calcium on pollen germination and the growth of the pollen tube, leading to higher fertility Ge et al. However, although a linear relationship was fitted for these characteristics, there should be a maximum calcium concentration above which this effect will no longer be recorded.
The highest calcium concentration in the leaves was reached at a calcium concentration of 2. Snap bean plants were responsive to increases in the calcium concentration in the nutrient solution, and the highest calcium accumulation was observed in the leaves Favaro et al.
In the present work, the decrease at the upper calcium concentrations in the nutrient solution may have been a simultaneous effect of the reduction in the water flow in the plant and the higher electrical conductivity of the nutrient solutions. The problem of using this potassium is that it takes a long time to go from its fixed state to the interchangeable state, which means that it is not readily absorbed by the plant.
Too much potassium can also prevent the absorption of certain micro-elements, such as zinc.
It is particularly important to take account of this interaction when using very hard water with a high calcium and magnesium content. Phosphorus An excess of phosphorus interacts negatively with the majority of micro-elements Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu.
In some cases, this is due to the formation of insoluble precipitates and in other cases, to metabolic processes in the plant which prevent the transfer of the nutrient from the root to other parts of the plant.
Genetic interactions can vary from one species to another and even between different varieties of the same species. Other studies, however, conclude that the effect is negative. There have also been reports of a reduction in the availability of sulfur and calcium when large quantities of phosphate are applied.
In the case of calcium, this is caused by the formation of insoluble phosphates. In contrast, phosphorus favors the absorption of magnesium, so a shortage of phosphorus could also lead to a magnesium deficiency if the latter is present in small quantities. Colored Scanning Electron Micrograph SEM of a root nodule on a pea plant Pisum sativum caused by the nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria Rhizobium leguminosarum. The plant and the bacteria have a symbiotic relationship.
The plant cannot carry out this process itself, but it is vital for the production of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins. In return, the plant passes carbohydrates produced during photosynthesis to the bacteria for use as an energy source. The bacteria enter the plant through its root hairs, where an infection thread leads it to the nodule.
Its most important effect is its influence on the soil structure. Calcium in the soil tends to improve aeration, while Mg favors the adhesion of soil particles. This ratio is also important for the mineral balance within the plant. Interaction of Sodium with Calcium, Magnesium and Potassium Sodium has a negative effect on most plants due to its toxicity, when it accumulates in certain tissues of the plant, and its capacity to harm the soil structure by competing with other cations for adsorption the adhesion of the cation to the surface of some soil components.
When a soil contains a level of sodium that might prove harmful to crops, it is said to be sodic. Soil sodicity should not be confused with soil salinity, which refers to the total quantity of salts in the soil, without specifying which salts are more prevalent.
There are two ways of determining where there is a risk of harm from excess sodium. One is by calculating the ratio between the sodium and other dissolved cations that will be absorbed by the plant. This is known as the sodium adsorption ratio or SAR. The formula is as follows: Irrigation water with a SAR over 18 is considered as having a high sodium content.
Another way is by calculating what proportion of sodium cations is retained in the exchange complex, as compared to others. This is known as the exchangeable sodium percentage ESP.