Motivation and Emotion - meta - Maastricht University
Overtime, a lot of reasons have been believed to be responsible for motivation, some of them include the will, instinct, needs, drives, goals and. Motivation and emotion share several characteristics and a seemingly cause-and -effect relationship. understand the basic concepts of motivation and emotion, and related their relationship with motivation, and some techniques to help you manage your.
Cognitive processing is also an integral part of emotion and motivation and affects the degree to which they influence ongoing activities and behaviors. It has become increasingly clear that cognition, emotion, and motivation are intricately intertwined, and it is difficult to determine where to draw the line between them Pessoa,; Miller, Complex relationships among these psychological processes appear to play an important role in the development and maintenance of psychopathology and in treatment effectiveness.
As demonstrated below, a review of the cognitive difficulties experienced by individuals with anxiety and depression makes clear that it is virtually impossible to separate these difficulties from their emotional and motivational influences. Conversely, the emotional and motivational disruptions that are characteristic of anxiety and depression are embedded in abnormal cognitions, as has been well established for some time e.
Recent years have also seen advances in elucidating the functional and structural brain mechanisms that support the effects of emotion and motivation on cognition and vice versa for reviews, see Gray, ; Phelps, ; Pessoa,; Chiew and Braver, ; Dolcos et al. Growing sophistication in theory and methodological approaches has led to empirical evidence suggesting that these processes are not only interdependent but effectively integrated in at least some areas of the brain e.
These networks include prefrontal cortex PFCcingulate, amygdala, striatum, hypothalamus, hippocampus, insula, and parietal regions. Despite a growing body of research on this topic, much work remains to be done, especially to advance concepts and theories to guide the work Miller, There continues to be enormous but unrealized potential to apply these findings to psychopathology and treatment Miller et al.
A better understanding of the psychological and neural mechanisms involved in the complex relationships between cognition, emotion, and motivation can aid in advancing the development of such new applications.
The goals of this paper are 1 to integrate findings of studies exploring relationships between cognitive, emotional, and motivational processes, and their associated neural mechanisms in anxiety and depression and 2 to highlight psychological and biological processes implicated in emotion-cognition and motivation-cognition interactions that are amenable to ongoing modification and can be targeted with interventions.
Thus, this review will convey the current state of the field and highlight the potential synergy between basic and treatment-related research that can move the field forward. In the present review, neuroplasticity refers to functional and structural flexibility of brain systems, regions, and structures over time, such that a given system is able to change in response to input which may include experience or other interventions and does not harden into rigidity with maturation.
In some cases a functional change might reflect alterations in dynamic neural processes as inferred by modifications in activity and metabolism or other aspects of physiology. In such cases there is no presumption that the altered physiology directly influences or reflects change in the structure of the neural tissue. The present review will focus on anxiety and depression, but manifestations of other types of psychopathology are also highly dependent on emotion-cognition and motivation-cognition interactions.
For example, the clinical picture of schizophrenia is influenced significantly by emotional adjustment, motivational dynamics e.
Relationship Between Motivation And Emotion - Information Guide in Nigeria
Explication of the dynamics of emotion-cognition and motivation-cognition processes in anxiety and depression may contribute to understanding similar dynamics in other disorders. Emotion-cognition interactions in anxiety and depression Emotion-cognition interactions gone awry can lead to clinically significant levels of anxiety and depression.
A pervasive finding in the anxiety literature is that anxious individuals exhibit an attentional bias, such that they preferentially process threat-related information for reviews, see McNally, ; Bar-Haim et al. Anxious individuals display facilitated orientation toward threatening stimuli and have difficulty disengaging from it once their attention is captured for reviews, see Cisler et al.
This attentional bias appears to play a key role in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders MacLeod et al. There is also some evidence that depressed individuals exhibit an attentional bias to negative material, though this literature is mixed for reviews, see Levin et al. When biased attention has been found in depression, it has often been the case that stimuli were presented for relatively longer durations e. Williams and colleagues proposed that the attentional biases for threat observed in studies of anxiety reflect earlier stages of processing e.
However, some scalp event-related brain potential ERP findings have indicated a bias to attend to negative words as early as ms post stimulus onset, as well as later enhanced processing in depression with comorbid anxiety Sass et al. Thus, evidence suggests that impairments in control of attention, particularly in the face of distracting emotional information, characterize both depression and anxiety, although potentially in different ways or on different time scales.
Hemodynamic neuroimaging work examining the successful implementation of control of attention in the context of emotional distractors has implicated several key areas, including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex DLPFC and anterior cingulate cortex ACC; Whalen et al. Additionally, various parts of the parietal cortex play a role in control of attention in both emotional and nonemotional contexts Banich et al.
Together, these findings suggest that anxiety and depression are associated with abnormal cognition in the presence of emotional distractors, from earlier selective attention to later inhibition and response selection. There is ample evidence that anxious individuals also exhibit an interpretation bias, in which ambiguous information and situations are interpreted negatively Mathews and MacLeod, ; Zinbarg and Yoon, This bias is supported by two fMRI findings for a review, see Bishop, First, responsivity of the amygdala to neutral stimuli increases as a function of anxiety, suggesting that anxious individuals overinterpret such stimuli as threatening Somerville et al.
Second, PFC is engaged when healthy individuals attempt to decrease the impact of negative information via emotion-regulation strategies, including generating new interpretations of situations.
Individuals with anxiety exhibit decreased PFC recruitment during such tasks, suggesting that they have difficulty generating alternative meanings of such stimuli in order to alter their initial and ongoing emotional response Goldin et al.
This interpretation bias appears to play a causal role in anxiety and can lead to distortions in memory Wilson et al. It is unclear whether depression is also associated with an interpretation bias, given mixed results in the literature for discussion, see Gotlib and Joormann, However, there is consistent evidence that depression is characterized by a memory bias, such that depressed individuals preferentially recall negative over positive information for review, see Mathews and MacLeod, ; Gotlib and Joormann, Depressed individuals also tend to retrieve overgeneral autobiographical memories that lack details, even when they are instructed to recall specific events Williams et al.
Consistent with these findings, hypoactivation of the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus has been observed in individuals diagnosed with major depressive disorder MDD during an autobiographical memory task Young et al.
Given deficits in DLPFC activation in depressed individuals, difficulty implementing strategies to recall detailed memories may be related to impaired connectivity between PFC and hippocampal regions. Overgeneral memory recall has been associated with longer depressive episodes Raes et al. Executive function deficits in anxiety and depression Anxiety and depression have been associated with deficits in executive function EF; Levin et al.
Examples of EFs include planning and organizing, sequencing steps to accomplish a task, inhibiting prepotent responses, updating and manipulating information in working memory, shifting between strategies or tasks, and flexibly adjusting behavior to environmental demands.
A pervasive view in the literature is that the EF deficits that characterize anxiety and depression are due to the symptoms of psychopathology e. However, others have asserted that these deficits are not simply the result of current symptoms, and several studies have demonstrated that individuals in remission from depression still exhibit various EF deficits Beats et al.
Given that executive dysfunction persists even when symptoms improve, it is plausible that these EF deficits contribute to initial onset or relapse, rather than merely resulting from disorder. There is evidence that anxiety is associated with deficits in shifting between mental sets Airaksinen et al.
In addition, anxiety has been linked to working memory problems MacLeod and Donnelan, ; Derakshan and Eysenck, ; Eysenck et al. An influential proposal, the attentional control theory, considers anxiety in relation to three EF components—inhibition, shifting, and updating of working memory—based on a model proposed by Miyake and colleagues This theory proposes that anxiety is characterized by an EF deficit in control of attention due to worry impairing the central executive of the working memory system Eysenck et al.
This impairment is accompanied by deficits in inhibition and shifting functions, as well as an imbalance in two attention systems. Specifically, anxiety decreases the influence of a goal-directed, top-down attention system and increases the influence of a stimulus-driven, bottom-up attention system. Little work has been conducted thus far investigating key aspects of this theory, but some support of its assertions is starting to accrue for reviews, see Derakshan and Eysenck, ; Eysenck and Derakshan, ; Snyder et al.
Using the three-component EF model developed by Miyake and colleaguesWarren et al. Whereas anxious apprehension was associated with shifting impairments only, anxious arousal was associated with broad impairments in EF shifting, updating, and inhibitionespecially updating and inhibition.
These findings are generally consistent with Eysenck et al. Future work should examine these dimensions of psychopathology in relation to Miyake and Friedman's updated EF model in which the inhibition-specific component is subsumed by a common EF factor. Deficits in inhibition appear to be associated with the difficulties that depressed individuals have disengaging from mood-congruent negative information, which leads to further elaboration of the negative information and contributes to the attentional bias described above for a review, see Gotlib and Joormann, Some evidence suggests that this effect is valence-specific, such that depressed individuals demonstrate inhibition deficits selectively for negative information e.
In addition, depressed individuals have difficulty intentionally ignoring distracting information, whether it is emotional or nonemotional in nature Gotlib and Joormann, ; Snyder, Depression therefore appears to be associated with an increased vulnerability to distracting information, but once attention has been captured, difficulties in disengaging are specific to information with negative valence.
Depression-related difficulty disengaging from information also appears to be related to deficits in other cognitive control mechanisms, specifically updating and removing previous task-relevant information, both emotional and nonemotional in nature, from working memory and flexibly switching attention to the task at hand Joormann and Gotlib, ; Banich et al. These deficits likely also contribute to prolonged processing of negative aspects of stimuli, which in turn hinders emotion regulation processes and leads to the sustained negative affect and rumination observed during depressive episodes Joormann, Further, depression has been associated with a variety of other EF deficits, including impairments in verbal fluency, verbal and visuospatial working memory, and planning for reviews, see Yee, ; Levin et al.
Motivation and Emotion
Studies of healthy individuals have consistently implicated several subregions of PFC across a variety of EFs. Depression and anxiety have both been associated with hypoactivation in these regions Rogers et al. Impaired recruitment of PFC regions appears to be associated with difficulty implementing various functions associated with EF tasks, including maintaining task goals and goal-related information.
Specifically, comorbid anxious arousal and depression were associated with reduced left DLPFC activity during an EF task, but only when anxious apprehension was low Engels et al.
Motivation-cognition interactions in anxiety and depression Numerous behavioral and psychophysiological studies have provided evidence that depression is associated with motivation-related deficits.
These are reflected in decreased responsivity to positive or rewarding stimuli and reduced approach-related behaviors for reviews, see Fernandes and Miller, ; Pizzagalli et al. Relative to healthy controls, individuals with MDD exhibit blunted responsiveness to pleasant films and scenes Berenbaum and Oltmanns, ; Sloan et al.
Depressed individuals also fail to demonstrate the bias toward attending and responding to positive and rewarding stimuli that nondepressed controls show McCabe and Gotlib, ; Pizzagalli et al. Hemodynamic neuroimaging studies of reward tasks have demonstrated that depression is associated with decreased activation in key brain areas associated with the processing of reward-related information, specifically nucleus accumbens and caudate, as well as decreased activation in left PFC, an area that has been associated with approach-related motivation and the processing of positive stimuli Davidson and Henriques, ; Herrington et al.
Decreased activation in striatal areas has been found during both anticipatory and consummatory phases of reward processing Pizzagalli et al. Other brain areas display abnormally increased activation in relation to reward processing in depression, including orbitofrontal cortex OFCimplicated in the assessment of risk and reward, and dACC, implicated in predicting response value Knutson et al.
In addition to deficits in processing reward and decreased approach behavior, depression appears to be associated with increased avoidance behavior and an enhanced sensitivity to negative cues and punishment, consistent with a bias toward negative information as reviewed above see also Pizzagalli et al. Furthermore, depressed individuals exhibit abnormal responses to errors and perceived failure and demonstrate problems adjusting their behavior appropriately after making mistakes and receiving negative feedback Elliott et al.
Studies examining brain activation in relation to the anticipation of and response to negative cues, feedback, and making errors have found hyperactivity in several areas associated with threat-related processing, including amygdala, ACC, and medial PFC mPFC along with hypoactivity in lateral PFC Tucker et al. Anxious individuals appear to be hypersensitive to negative or punishment-related stimuli, consistent with being prone to interpret information as threatening for reviews, see Gray,; Sass et al.
Further, anxious individuals exhibit increased activation in threat-related brain regions when responding to negative stimuli, including PFC, dACC, amygdala, and parietal and temporal areas Heller et al. Similar to depression, anxiety is associated with enhanced avoidance motivation Spielberg et al.
The tendency for anxious individuals to engage in risk-avoidant behavior is due in part to exaggerated perceptions of the likelihood and cost of negative outcomes Maner and Schmidt, Anxiety has been associated with increased activity in the insula while making risky decisions and learning to avoid monetary loss Paulus et al. The insula is a key brain area involved in both the experience and the anticipation of negative outcomes, as well as decision-making about risky behaviors for a review, see Samanez-Larkin et al.
Furthermore, anxious individuals display hyper-reactivity to making errors, as evidenced by increased ACC activation and an enhancement in error-related negativity ERNan ERP component that indexes error processing for a review, see Olvet and Hajcak, Anxiety also appears to be characterized by hypersensitivity to rewards, as it is associated with faster responses to potential rewards Hardin et al. Thus, anxiety appears to be associated with exaggerated responses to both rewards and punishments, indicating enhanced sensitivity to incentives irrespective of valence.
It is likely that at least some of the observed motivation-related dysfunction associated with anxiety and depression is related to the EF deficits that also characterize these disorders. Adaptive motivational processing relies on intact EF, such that goals can be selected based on their predicted value, behaviors can be initiated to achieve these goals, and goal-directed action can be maintained across time, particularly in the face of distraction Spielberg et al.
Many of the abnormal approach- and avoidance-related behaviors associated with anxiety and depression are likely due at least in part to dysfunction in specific EFs.
For example, depressed individuals have difficulty sustaining reward responsiveness over time Heller et al. Heller and colleagues found that problems in reward responsiveness were linked to dysfunction in frontal and subcortical areas, which interact to implement goal-directed behavior. Just as EFs appear to influence motivational processes, there is also evidence that motivation affects these cognitive processes in anxiety and depression. In healthy individuals, altering motivational processing via monetary incentives has been associated with enhancements of various EFs, including cognitive control, attention, set-shifting, and working memory Pochon et al.
In contrast, depressed adults and adolescents failed to adaptively adjust their performance during EF tasks in order to optimize their chances of winning money in rewarding and punishing contexts Henriques and Davidson, ; Jazbec et al. Similarly, high trait-anxious individuals did not improve their performance during a demanding EF task when monetary incentives were offered, while low trait-anxious individuals demonstrated the expected enhanced performance in the reward condition Eysenck, In a sample of anxious adolescents, incentive-related modulation of performance on a cognitive control task was significantly weaker than in healthy adolescents Hardin et al.
The failure of motivational manipulations to appropriately modulate EFs in individuals with anxiety and depression is likely related to the observed dysfunction in brain networks associated with incentive processing and task-relevant cognitive processing. As reviewed above, anxiety and depression are associated with dysfunction in areas involved in processing both positive, rewarding stimuli and negative, punishing stimuli e.
Furthermore, it is likely that networks involved in implementing motivation-related processes and EFs fail to interact appropriately in order to integrate various functions and successfully execute goal-driven behavior. Relationships among EF, emotion, and motivation Evidence reviewed above establishes many interactions among cognition, emotion, and motivation and clearly indicates that these interactions contribute to psychopathology.
Although it is generally assumed that deficits in cognition and EF are caused by emotional and motivational disturbances, it has also been postulated that deficits in specific EFs e. Some examples of intrinsic motivation is when a student studies diligently not just to pass an exam but to gain mastery of the course of study he is involved with.
Extrinsic motivation on the other hand is the desire to carry out tasks majorly because of the reward afterwards, it is the opposite of intrinsic motivation.
- Relationship Between Motivation And Emotion
An example of extrinsic motivation is competition, competitions encourage people to carry out tasks because of the prize involved and not merely for the love of the task. Emotion is a state of feeling that usually results in psychological and physical changes that influence our behaviour.
A lot of times, emotions are the driving force behind motivation. Emotion is an affective state of consciousness in which joy, sorrow, fear, hate, or the like is experienced, as distinguished from cognitive and volitional states of consciousness.
Emotions possess five elements, they are: Shows an evaluation of events Bodily symptoms: These are the psychological symptoms of emotional experiences Action tendencies: Directs motor impulses Expression: This most times accompanies an emotional state, it reveals the intention of action.
The subjective experience of emotional state once it has occurred There are three basic relationships between motivation and emotion, and they are 1. Emotions possess motivational properties of their own 2. Emotions go hand in hand with motives 3. The motives of motivation and the arousal of emotion both activate behaviour. Emotion and motivation are related in two major ways How are emotions and motivation related?
It is normal for humans to carry out actions that they believe will bring them happiness and a whole lot of positive emotions.
With this in mind it becomes obvious that emotions are a form of reward for certain motivated behaviour. As a result of this, it can be said that emotions also have an effect on motivation in the sense that they bring about an increase in the possibility of a certain behaviour being exhibited at a certain time.
Behaviours that have brought about reward when performed by an individual will be easily exhibited by an individual when the individual finds himself in such a situation. Few examples of this include: A young man will be more motivated to work-out if working out has in anytime helped him get a lady he desires. A student will be more motivated to read inspirational books if the knowledge he gained from reading inspirational books in the past made him sound intelligent and learned in the sight of his peers and tutors alike.
A long distance runner will be well motivated to take lots of water if the amount of water that he took in the past helped him avoid dehydration and made him win a long distance race. A young singer will be motivated to stay clear of a cold weather if the clarity of his voice in the past is very well associated with feelings of euphoria on stage.