Ottoman Empire | Facts, History, & Map | corrosion-corrintel.info
The Ottoman Empire also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of .. As coffeehouses appeared in cities and towns across the empire. Its large communities of Christians and small groups of Jews enjoyed . The CUP began to conceive of Rûm villages and towns at the .. A Question of Genocide: Armenians and Turks at the End of the Ottoman Empire, New York , p. Protectors: Muslim-Christian Relations in Eastern Anatolia during. Paradise, Neil, "In the Lion's Den: Orthodox Christians under Ottoman Rule, changing relationships of conquered . Functioning of a Plural Society, (New York: Holmes .. economic vitality of his cities and pluralism within them. The new.
Western Anatolia was then a hotbed of raiding activity, with warriors switching allegiance at will to whichever chief seemed most able to provide them with opportunities for plunder and glory. According to later Ottoman tradition, he was descended from a Turkic tribe which migrated out of Central Asia in the wake of the Mongol Conquests. Thus it was inclusive of all who wished to join, including people of Byzantine origin. Gaza Thesis In the Austrian historian Paul Wittek published an influential work entitled The Rise of the Ottoman Empire, in which he put forth the argument that the early Ottoman state was constructed upon an ideology of Islamic holy war against non-Muslims.
Such a war was known as gaza, and a warrior fighting in it was called a gazi. Beginning in the s, historians increasingly began to criticize Wittek's thesis.
It was only later, in the fifteenth century, that Ottoman writers retroactively began to portray the early Ottomans as zealous Islamic warriors, in order to provide a noble origin for their dynasty which had by then constructed an intercontinental Islamic empire.
Ottoman Empire - Wikipedia
Urban centers and settled regions were devastated, while nomadic groups suffered less of an impact. The first Ottoman incursions into the Balkans began shortly thereafter. Depopulation resulting from the plague was thus almost certainly a major factor in the success of early Ottoman expansion into the Balkans, and contributed to the weakening of the Byzantine Empire and the depopulation of Constantinople.Muslim Study history & found Lord corrosion-corrintel.info story of a Turkish Muslim (Pls SHARE)
As Ottoman territory expanded its rulers were faced with the challenge of administering an ever-larger population. Early on the Ottomans adopted the Seljuks of Rum as models, and by were able to produce Persian-language bureaucratic documents in the Seljuk style.
Much of the state's centralization was carried out in opposition to these frontier warriors, who resented Ottoman efforts to control them.
Ultimately, the Ottomans were successfully able to harness the military power of the gazis in order to conquer an empire, while increasingly subordinating those warriors to their will.
This reflected both an ideological concern for the well-being of their subjects, and also a pragmatic need to earn the loyalty of newly conquered populations. For example, the Rabbi, in a millet-bashi, acted as the administrative officer responsible for acting as representative for his community to the state. Rather than collecting the jiyzya individually, they paid the state collectively, with a Chief Rabbi administrating. This was the case for all recognized Christian and Jewish communities.
The millet leader may have held certain powers to enforce and legislate laws.
Rise of the Ottoman Empire - Wikipedia
He also served to plead the causes of his community to the Ottoman government. He attributes this to the contact individuals within the non-Muslim millets had with Europe. This also enforced a system of tax collection from all citizens, not just Christians and Jews, as well as a mandatory army service for all. However, what happened in practice was a bit different; most Christians and Jews response to army reforms was to pay a special tax exempting them from army duty, rather than fulfilling the mandatory service.
According to Davison, acceptance of certain modernization by non-Muslim millets also caused non-acceptance by Muslims on religious and anti-Western grounds.
The position of Christians and Jews under Ottoman rule can be debated in historical constructs. While religious association often determined the social status of citizens, religious minorities were usually treated with a level of tolerance that was not often enjoyed by minorities under Christian rule. However, it is important to remember that we may never truly understand the position of minorities under Ottoman rule because historical interpretations often lead scholars astray. Between Integration and Conflict.
The harem was extravagant, decadent, and vulgar. The concentration of wealth, suffering and injustice toward women was far from the ideals of marriage and married life in Islam.
Despite this, the harem could bring benefits to a family who had a woman in the harem. It meant patronage, wealth and power; it meant access to the most powerful man in the Empire - the Sultan. Influences and Structure Although the Ottoman Empire was widely influenced by the faiths and customs of the peoples it incorporated, the most significant influences came from Islam.
The ruling elite worked their way up the hierarchy of the state madrassahs religious schools and the palace schools. They were trained to be concerned with the needs of government and to be mindful of the restrictions of Islamic law. In its structure the ruling elite reflected a world of order and hierarchy in which promotion and status were rewarded on merit.
Thus birth and genealogy, aristocracy or tribe became almost irrelevant to success in the system. Only one post, that of the Sultan, was determined by birth. Suleiman came to the throne as one of the wealthiest rulers in the world.
Christian Allies of the Ottoman Empire
His strength owed much to the work his father Selim had done in stabilising government, removing opposition, frightening but not succesfully conquering the Safavid Empire of Iran into adopting a non-aggression policy, and conquering the Mamluk empire of Egypt and Syria. These conquests, which united the lands of Eastern Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean under a single ruler, brought a time of peace and stability, under which the Empire flourished.
Suleiman had no internal rivals for power.