We will be studying Industrial manipulator type Robots. objects, makes connection to other machines, or performs the required tasks. Non Servo Control. incorporating the DISC™ (Digital Intelligent Servo Controller) for the purpose of modular manipulators through activities, including but not limited to, Figure 15 shows the designed relationship between the sensed. 2, and do not refer to the orientation of the servo manipulator itself. . This inner bevel gear is connected to a bevel gear in driving relationship thereto.
Journal of Control Science and Engineering
In particular, visual information provided by vision sensor such as charge-coupled device CCD cameras guarantees accurate positioning, robustness of calibration uncertainties, and reactivity of environmental changes. The overview of visual servo can be seen in literature [ 14 — 16 ]. In PBVS, the feedback signals in vision loop are the intuitive relative 3D pose between current and desired cameras estimated by current and desired image features using homography matrix or fundamental matrix estimation and decomposition.
In IBVS, the feedback signals are image features whose changing velocities are related to the velocity twist of the camera via the image jacobian matrix also called interaction matrix. In HYBVS, the feedback signals consist of relative 3D pose and image features, the former is used to control a subset of the camera configuration vector while the latter are used to regulate the remaining camera configuration vector.
Relating CCD cameras and the mobile robots lead to the applications of vision-based autonomous navigation control. Thanks to the capabilities of the vision subsystem, the VBMMS can work in an unstructured environment and has wider applications than a fixed-base manipulator and a mobile platform. Due to the lack of accurate and robust positioning performance of VBMMS, very few physical implementations have been reported.
In their research, an innovative controller with machine learning using Q-learning is proposed to guarantee visibility of visual features in servo process.
It consists of two basic contributions. First, after summarizing the VBMMS as a generalized manipulator, the kinematics is analyzed analytically and an active vision-based camera calibration method is proposed to determine the hand-eye relationship consequently. Second, a novel switching control strategy is proposed which switches between eye-fixed approximation and position-based static look-and-move grasping. The remainder of the paper is organized as follows.
Section 1 will introduce the design of the QR Code-based artificial object mark. In Section 2the VBMMS is summarized as a generalized manipulator, then the kinematics, inverse kinematics, and hand-eye relationship determination are discussed.
In Section 3the switching control strategy which switches between eye-fixed approximation and static look-and-move grasping is designed. Two experiments will be presented in Section 4 to validate the designed switching controller. Conclusions will be drawn in Section 5. The module 2 is fixedly connected to a portion of the left shoulder module assembly 3, and the module 2 also supports the upper arm portion 6 of elbow module 7.
As used, the words "left hand" and "right hand" refer to the position of parts on FIG. That is, "left" in FIG. The elbow module 7 is connectable to the wrist module 8. The wrist module 8 in turn supports tongs 9.
A structural backing member 4 is provided to externally support the advanced servo manipulator of the present invention. A shoulder drive pod assembly 5 is supported above the shoulder module assembly 3, and provides rotary motive power for the shoulder module assembly 3. The corresponding modular units on the right side of FIG.
The right hand drive motor module assembly 11 is connected to the right hand gear pod module 31 which in turn is connected to the roll sleeve module The right shoulder module assembly 13 supports the right hand roll sleeve module A right hand shoulder drive pod assembly 15 drives the right hand shoulder module assembly A central supporting block 14 is provided between the opposing pairs of modular units.
The roll sleeve module 12 supports the right hand upper arm portion 16 of elbow module Elbow module 17 supports the right hand wrist module 18, which in turn supports the right hand tongs An individual drive motor module is designated as numeral 10 in FIG.
Research on Visual Servo Grasping of Household Objects for Nonholonomic Mobile Manipulator
The parts are numbered correspondingly to FIG. It is partly broken away from view of the internal components. A pair of input spur gear couplings couple to motor shaft 35, driven by the individual motor modules 10, provide rotary motive power to the module 3. Each individual spur gear coupling 35 is supported by bearings unnumbered having a pinion member rotating therewith. Pinion in turn drives a driven toothed gear Gear 37 is driven by both of the gears 35, to balance the forces involved so that there is no net force other than rotary force acting upon shaft 36 of the gear Four head projections 34 are visible in FIG.
A mounting block upper housing 30 supports all of the elements of the module 3. The toothed gear 37 has a bevel pinion 38 mounted on the same shaft which is arranged for driving a bevel gear A toothed gear rotates together with bevel gear 39 and is integral therewith, being connected fixedly thereto.
Gears and 39 are connected together by a bearing-mounted central shaft This clearly shows the arrangement of the gears 35 and gearshaft Here, it is seen that the ring gear is fixedly connected with a large cylindrical bodyand the axis of the ring gear is the axis about which shoulder pitch occurs.
A neck portion is formed in the body This is supported by bearings as are all rotating parts. These bearings permit rotary, but not translational movement. If other frictionless-type of bearings are desired, they can be provided in such as contemplated as being within the scope of the present invention.
For example, a Teflon bearing, an air bearing, magnetic bearings, or the like could be used in place of the ball bearings for other application. A front plate is fixedly connected to the body A remote positioner is fixedly attached to the plateand projects beyond it.
In dotted outline, the remote positioner is indicated at in FIG. Typical connecting screws and are shown for connecting, respectively, the plate and the ring gear to the body The element 7 has an upper arm portion 6 which is connected to the roll sleeve module 2 and which three shafts visible in FIG.
The upper arm portion 6 has an upper housing enda housing surfaceand a housing surface disposed generally adjacent to surface A housing surface is disposed between surfaces and in FIG.
A cover member covers the interior gear assemblies discussed hereunder. A clam shell portion is also shown in FIG. A lower housing portion is disposed to the right of the clam shell memberbeyond which are visible a bevel geara locator pinanother bevel gearand a bevel gear Here, the gear transmission assembly is visible at the elbow joint between claim shell portions andand and Also visible is a corresponding outer drive shaft having a splined end and an interior drive shaft having a splined end The output gear of the interior drive shaft is shown as bevel gearand the output gearwhich is a bevel gear, is connected to the shaft The bevel gear is in driving contact with an outer bevel gear The bevel gear is in contact with an inner bevel gear This inner bevel gear is connected to a bevel gear in driving relationship thereto.
The outer bevel gear is in driving relation to a bevel gear connected to a shaft which runs interiorly of the bevel gear The inner and outer bevel gears andand the symmetrically disposed inner and outer bevel gears andare all supported on a main gear shaft This shaft is preferrably supported by bearings, however, as discussed in the above, any other friction-reducing support may be used.
The bevel gear is driven by bevel gearwhile the outer bevel gear is driven by bevel gear The outer bevel gear drives bevel gear and the inner bevel gear drives the bevel gear Bolts are used to connect the module 7 to the wrist module 8 not shown in FIGS.
As seen in FIG. Also, the inner bevel gear drives the output bevel gearwhile the outer bevel gear drives the output bevel gear The locator pin is also visible in FIG.
The bevel gear and bevel gear are both shown in contact with the bevel gears and respectively. Shaft connected to the gear passes centrally through a bore in the gear The body is shown, having bolts and having locator pins and shown. Although the output gears, and appear to be upon a single shaft in FIG.
This shows an outer output bevel gear an inner bevel gear which extends beyond the gear Gear extends beyond the corresponding output gearwhich has an outer gear as shown in FIG. An inner shaft connects the gears and An outer shaft connects the gears and Correspondingly, an outer shaft connects gears andwhile an inner shaft connects gears and Bearing supports are shown throughout for supporting the rotating parts, but as discussed above any type of friction-reducing support could also be used which permits rotary motion and adequate precision.
This shows the bevel gear arrangement clearly, that is, it shows the inner and outer bevel gear arrangement on the shaft Housing members are disposed at opposite ends of the shaft, as are the cover members As seen, the bevel gears are arranged on shaft in the following order: These gears are able to rotate independently of one another due to the bearings unnumbered which are disposed between adjacent surfaces of the inner and outer bevel gears.
Each of these gears also may rotate independently upon the shaft due to individual bearings attached to each of the gears. These bearings permit rotational but not translational movement of the gears. This clearly shows an inner shaft connected to splined end and an outer shaft connected to end for driving bevel gears at the elbow joint portion.
An upper housing portion is seen in FIG. Shaft shown in FIG. Therefore, rotational motive force applied about the shaft causes elbow pitch to occur along gear This view is partially broken away along its middle and is intended to show a separating member which maintains separation of the clam shell halvesgenerally. This shows more clearly the shaft 33 which is connected to shaft which drives gear Gear drives the bevel gearwhich is supported by a double pair of bearings.
At either end of a shaftconnected to the gearare a pair of gears These gears act upon elbow roll gearsonly one of which is shown in FIG.
US4780047A - Advanced servo manipulator - Google Patents
The clam shell membersand are seen in this figure. This shows outer shaft driving gearand inner shaft driving gear The bevel gears, and are also shown in side sectional view. Bearings are employed between relatively rotating parts, to allow independent rotation thereof. Such bearings are, as usual, unnumbered. Outer shaft is shown driving gearwhile inner shaft drives gear A portion of a tooth of the elbow pitch gears is seen in FIG. An outer cylinder wall is seen in the drawing, with retaining bolts shown in the figure for attachment of the module 2 to the shoulder module assembly 3 for movement therewith during shoulder pitch operations.
Here, the connection of the module 2 to the module 3 is more clearly seen, as well as the connection of the gear pod module 21 to the module 2, the gear pod module 21 lying on top of and fixedly connected to module 2 by connecting member Pinion is visible in partial dotted outline in FIG. This permits relative rotation of the inner cylindrical member which itself is fixedly connected with gear pod module Thus, gear pod module 21 rotates about the longitudinal axis 18 due to actuation of pinion relative to gear teeth integral with the fixed wallthus causing relative movement between the concentric cylindrical walls and A fastener is shown in FIG.
Also, a bearing spacer is mounted for rotation with cylindrical wall Bearings are used to provide reduced-friction rotational mountings, the bearings permitting rotational motion but not translational movement.
The fasteners are seen more clearly in FIG. Pinion is shown in partial outline in this figure. Also, shown in partial outline are the drive shafts, and Although these drive shafts are not part of module 2, they pass through the hollow center of module 2 for direct connection to gear pod module Bolts are seen also in this figure.
The top of the upper housing portion is visible as a flat surface in FIG. Bolts are visible also in FIG. Gear trains are shown in top view in FIG. The gear provides rotary motive power for the wrist roll movement. The gear path show as path in FIG. The gear is adapted to receive rotary motive power from motor module 10 through toothed top gear portion a to provide rotary motive power to an elbow pitch drive spline shown in FIG.
The gear in the path is adapted to receive rotary motive power from a module The gears in the gear train include gears, and Here, the gear train path shows how rotary motive power is transmitted from the rotary input gearwhich has a spool-like shape as do all of the other gears referred to above and meshes with the gear The other input gear drives gear which in turn drives gear Gear drives the inner drive shaft which controls wrist roll movement.