Sons and Lovers published in is the Lawrence's first most important novel which receive to study and analyze the human relationships among the man. Research Project Fellow, Department of English, MJB Govt Girls PG College, Indore Sons and Lovers was Lawrence‟s masterpiece which raised him to the level The relationship between man and woman is the main dominant theme in . A thorough study of D.H. Lawrencess Sons and Lovers reveals Sigmund. Freudss Oedipus depicts a different sort of mother>son or male>female relationship, which is really unusual .. some manner influenced by Freudian Psycho analysis.
Therefore, in his affair with Clara, Paul will be free from permanent commitment. He could be able to pull himself any time he wishes. However, as Paul starts spending time with Clara, the sense of mystery gradually starts evaporating. Once the mystery is fully over, he finds nothing to keep his interest intact. In addition, as expected he becomes tired soon as his mother predicted earlier: He was like an infant which when has drunk its fill, throws away and smashes the cup.
D.H. Lawrence's Sons and Lovers: Summary & Analysis - SchoolWorkHelper
Aaron, like Paul Morel, also has the same nuances in his relation with his wife Lottie. I want to be left alone. So, it is not only the mother-fixation that Paul finds difficult to commit himself to marriage, but the very essence of an artist which also crippled Aaron, a married person with two children, to establish a happy, conjugal relationship.
In fact, this artistic instinct of Paul Morel is only responsible to have his relationships hampered with Miriam and Clara. However, after breaking off with Clara, Paul once again becomes restless to get back to the inspiring love of Miriam. Although he has been able to have a physical fulfillment in the company of Clara, for the artistic fulfillment he finds no one else to move to, but Miriam.
The recognition and attention that Paul was able to attain from Miriam, finds impossible to derive from Clara. Sometimes she praised his work; sometimes she was critical and cold. As a result, his soul desires to fly back to the ever patronizing and encouraging company of Miriam. Therefore, he finally decides to return to her. Again, the artist in Paul stands in the way. It does not allow the lover in Paul to surrender to Miriam wholeheartedly. His going back to Miriam forever means the end of the freedom of his artistic being, which rather revolts in anger; he accuses Miriam of possessing such deep, spiritual love: I should die smothered.
Morel is often held responsible for ushering in all terrible confusion in the live of her son i. The general assumption is that it is out of her over-possessiveness that Paul cannot establish a successful relation in life.
Again, keeping in mind his artistic individuality, it could also be inferred that Paul himself is responsible more than his possessive-mother: Instead of that, he keeps surrendering to the demands of his mother.
However, with the death of his mother, Paul loses the static love and turns out to be wretched and vulnerable person. Nevertheless, this is not that the appalling desolation arises merely out of the loss; another reason may be that since Paul has lost all of the three women figures, he finds no one to draw the inspiration from; the loss only renders him utterly at a loss.
There was nowhere for him. Paul had to get rid of the old entanglements of relationships. His becoming so forlorn is not out of the death of his mother only, but as Lawrence himself explains: Each time we strive to a new relation with anyone, or anything, it is bound to hurt somewhat…. However, the present unknown opens up a new possibility for Paul and urges anew the creative artist in his being.
In fact, before losing all of his beloveds, Paul successfully draws out the necessary vitality from them: From his mother he drew the life warmth, the strength to produce; Miriam urged this warmth into intensity like a white light.
It is himself or rather his artistic individuality being substantially responsible for the utter chaos not only in his life but in the lives of the women also. In fact, Paul will always do this so long the unstable artist resides in him. The Love Ethics of D. Indiana University Press,61 2. Penguin Books,3. Conflicts in the Novels of D.
Penguin Books,5. How to Study D. Macmillan,36 7. Penguin Books,8. He occasionally realizes this fact, but he continues to blame his own mother for this failure. Lawrence wants to blame Miriam here because of her lack of self-confidence which has never been displayed in the text. He wants her to write, though she shows no real aptitude for it and he wants her to have his own interests.
What she must not do is compete with him. Perhaps she had not in herself that which he wanted. To Paul's disappointment, Miriam is not all the accepting fantasy-figure he would like her to be, and she is not a passive figure.
The following scene suggests a typical movement in the dealings between man and woman occurs in Lawrence's work. Paul is complaining that Miriam is making unnatural demands on him which he is right to refuse to fulfill: You don't want to love-your eternal and abnormal craving is to be loved.
You aren't positive, you're negative. You absorb, absorb, as if you must fill yourself up with love, because you've got a shortage somewhere. Her demands on his love are excessive and unnatural; but he has allowed them to be so.
Paul wants to maintain his relationship with the Lievers because they provide him with what he does not get at home. In his immaturity, Paul thinks that he can continue to have all the privileges of a relationship without the responsibility. After his cold reception by Miriam in one of the scenes, Paul turns to Edgar in order to punish her for the pain he caused for himself.
This is contained in the following sentence: This is hard to credit because Miriam is not the only one to blame for whatever pain is caused.
When she brought about the first meeting between Paul and Clara, Miriam doesn't show any lack of self-confidence. According to Lawrence, she sees it as a test, in which Paul must choose the higher herself over the lower Clara.
This cannot be totally correct since no woman would bring a rival to herself, especially when love is concerned.
Here again, Paul is using women to explain his own personal problems. It is possible that Miriam might want to force the issue by indicating the existence of other kinds of women. Physically, Miriam is described as fully mature; and there are many occasions when she is expecting an "animal" response from him, as stated by Murfin Notably, during the holiday at Mapplethorpe: He turned and looked at her. She stood beside him, forever in shadow. Her face, covered with the darkness of her hat, was watching him unseen.
But she was brooding. She was slightly afraid-deeply moved and religious. That was her best state. He was impotent against it. His blood concentrated like a flame in his chest. But somehow she ignored him. She was expecting some religious state in him. The references, in the above passage, to Miriam's religious quality seem more like special pleading to disguise Paul's own ineffectuality.
Paul's interest shifts from Miriam to Clara Dawes, and this fickle-mindedness is indicated when the three of them meet Limb with the stallion. Miss Limb's admiration for the masculinity of the horse embarrasses both Paul and Miriam, but Clara is aware of the fact that Miss Limb wants a man.
Paul insists that "it is the loneliness sends her cracked" p. Soon after this incident, Paul forgets Miriam and turns his attention towards Clara, demonstrating his desire to control her through pity. A hot wave went over Paul.
He was curious about her. It seems that Paul takes pleasure in seeing women suffer physically. Miriam is often described as clumsy and her lack of physical dexterity is insisted on rather gloatingly in contrast to Paul's own neatness and competence in everyday domestic affairs.
Paul considers himself a better woman than any of the actual women that he encounters. His critical attitude to women is literally deadly. It is only Clara who is able to point out some confused elements in Paul's response, but he avoids the issue by treating her remarks as a form of love-play: When she fights for herself she seems like a dog before a looking-glass, gone into a mad fury with its own shadow.
One which rejoices in failure, unhappiness and physical suffering in woman; all states that allow the male to dominate.
The dialogue makes Clara miserable rather than happy. Needless to say that any reciprocal move on the part of women to comfort men is seen as stifling and destructive. At the age of twenty one, Paul writes Miriam a letter which doesn't show he has grown up to be an adult. In the letter he says: These words demonstrate his lack of awareness about himself, and the affectation of style in this passage conveys clearly the unreality of the emotion.
In any case, what had the non-conformist Paul to do with mystic nuns? It appears that Paul is accusing Miriam of a fault that very much exists in his character. Clara's episode is, in many ways, the scheme of Sons and Lovers.
Lawrence has intended it merely to show that Paul was capable of successful sexual relations, and that Clara, who is much older than him, seems to be swept away by his expertise, and that Paul is her "boss. It just occurs to me" p. And in spite of her attempt to appear superior, she is in fact subject to his will.
A very titillating situation and one that Lawrence would have liked to get every woman into. Once Clara has fulfilled her purpose of vindicating Paul sexually, she can be casually handed back to her husband, in whom Paul is actually more interested. Arab World English Journal www. In itself it mirrors his own struggles to escape from his mother, as he described them in a letter to Garnett: She suffered, and I suffered, and it seemed all for nothing, just waste cruelly.
I suppose it is the final breaking away to independence. Fearing the role of the helpless victim, and engaged in a life-long struggle for self-assertion, Lawrence has always made an effort to assert himself as a man, and that was not easy for him, especially with the dominant women. This effort made him unable to accept women as individuals. The relationship between Paul, Clara and Dawes is a clear case of this kind of manipulative interest on the part of the author.
In spite of their initial passion, Paul loses interest and Clara asks the following question: But since Clara is a married woman, she has no claim on him and can make no demands. According to Fordthe only source of danger, if there is any, is that of Miriam, who wants to "absorb" him completely p. Therefore, he begins to instruct her as a wife and to reprimand her for treating her husband rather rottenly.
She accepts his claim and he was surprised. It's all right for Paul to leave Clara now because he has relieved her of her self-mistrust and had given her herself, but this wouldn't be easy for Clara since her life would be an ache after him. But now their "missions" were separate. Withdrawing love from a series of women and criticizing and rejecting them seems to be Lawrence's mission.
The fight between Paul and Baxter Dawes indicates much more sexual tension than ever was in the descriptions of physical love between Paul and Clara. At the end of it, all Paul wants to do is to get to his mother. The repetition emphasizes the urgency: When Clara and Miriam visit him on his sick-bed, he rejects them both. It is because he believed that being involved with women is dangerous, but the physical contact with men is infinitely more exciting.
When Paul visits Dawes in hospital, "the two men were afraid of the naked selves they had been" p. After the interview, "the strong emotion that Dawes aroused in him, repressed, made him shiver" Ibid.
Interwoven with this new concern with a man is the actual death of Mrs. Morel and the symbolic death of Paul's relationship with Clara. Paul uses the death of his mother as an excuse to drive Clara away from him. He tells her that he grudges the food his mother wants to eat. He condemns his mother for wanting to live, for wanting to continue to be with him. His attitude to her is vindictive; and the reader is not made to feel that this is simply a reaction to his mother's unbearable pain.
In the end Paul literally kills his mother, and, whatever the conscious motivation, it is clear that they are both aware that this will happen and are engaged in a terrible battle. And what is intolerable is the mother's will to live, bus as soon as she has been overcome by death; Paul falls Arab World English Journal www. She becomes the young girl whom he would always like to see. This has been explicitly stated in the exchange between them on the trip to Lincoln: What is she old for?
The final scene between Paul and his mother is definitive: She lay like a maiden asleep She lay like a girl asleep and dreaming of her love. The mouth was a little open, as if wondering from the suffering, but her face was young, her brow clear and white as if life had ever touched it.
He looked again at the eyebrows, at the small, winsome nose a bit on one side. She was young again.D. H. Lawrence: Sons and Lovers
Only the hair as it arched so beautifully from her temples was mixed with silver, and the two simple plaits that lay on her shoulders were filigree of silver and brown. She would wake up.
She would lift her eyelids. She was with him still. He bent and kissed her passionately. It is a symbolic picture of the essence of their purified and idealized relationship. The reality is that Paul has ruthlessly dispatched his mother because her continued existence and his inability to resolve the situation had become unbearable to him.
In the last scene, Paul can't take Miriam even after the death of his mother. This is an indicator of his immaturity and narcissism. Paul summed up the problem himself when he spoke to his mother of his inability to relate to his lovers as people: This is a true misogynistic attitude which only a selfish man can experience; Paul utters the above words only to please his mother at the cost of Miriam.
It is a response that Lawrence exploited in many of his later novels, usually to the detriment of women in general. The truth is that the Lawrence hero can't cope with women except in their maternal aspect or as faceless objects of passion.
His descriptions of intercourse rely heavily on the pleasures of a descent to the unconscious and obviously contain an incipient death-wish. A woman, after all, can only give the unimportant part of herself to work; the rest must be available for the use of man. It is wonder that Miriam remarks, in one of the truest sentences in the novel, "I've said you were only fourteen-you are only four! Yet again, Lawrence makes Paul project his own feelings onto Miriam, to escape guilt: She knew she felt in a sort of bondage to him, which she hated because she could not control it.
D.H. Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers: Summary & Analysis
She had hated her love for him from the moment it grew too strong for her. And, deep down, she had hated him because she loved him and he dominated her. She had resisted his domination. She had fought to keep herself free for him in the last issue. The refusal and hesitation is all on his side. Miriam can't win because she would have been thrown out as a dominant woman by Paul. Paul is here condemning Miriam for not taking an active role, the role appropriate to himself as the male partner.
His basic emotional response is fear of Miriam because she has forced him into the realization of the hate and misery of another failure. As has often been noted, the "healthy" aspects of his mental state at this point are his urge to go towards the town life and reject the darkness death ; and the final word of the text is "quickly," used in both its senses.
However, the mystical solution which Lawrence presents is not very satisfactory. Paul's mother, like Wordswroth's Lucy, has become part of the universe: She had been in one place, and was in another; that was all This cannot be called a real consolation since what Paul wants is the actual physical presence of his mother, and he wants this much more than he ever wanted Miriam or Clara.