The History of the Hollywood Movie Industry | History Cooperative
The creators and developers of television had been waiting for a chance to break Culture, studios began making “fewer but more expensive films, hoping to lure . A symbiotic relationship formed between actors who needed to work and an. This edition is updated to include popular and controversial movies and Politics and Film Politics and Film: The Political Culture of Television and Movies, has the capacity to 'destroy the relationship between sign and referent leading to a. Dec 28, Religion, doubt, and the conflict of cultures is a major theme in Martin In , films and TV shows that portrayed religion — organized or not.
Not only did the youth culture express a cynicism toward the patriotic, prowar stance of their World War II—era elders, but they displayed a fierce resistance toward institutional authority in general, an antiestablishmentism epitomized in the hit film Bonnie and Clyde. The wildly popular Easy Rider —containing drugs, sex, and violence—may owe a good deal of its initial success to liberalized audiences.
And in the same year, Midnight Cowboy, one of the first Hollywood films to receive an X rating in this case for its sexual contentwon three Academy Awards, including Best Picture Belton.
However, by —in part because of the transition to talking pictures—renewed criticism and calls for censorship from conservative groups made it clear to the MPPDA that the loose system of self-regulation was not enough protection.
Hayswhich remained in place until However, many people in Hollywood resented its restrictiveness.
Inthe MPAA adopted a ratings system to identify films in terms of potentially objectionable content. By providing officially designated categories for films that would not have passed Production Code standards of the past, the MPAA opened a way for films to deal openly with mature content.
The ratings system originally included four categories: The MPAA rating systems, with some modifications, is still in place today.
Commercially, less restrictive ratings are generally more beneficial, particularly in the case of adult-themed films that have the potential to earn the most restrictive rating, the NC Some movie theaters will not screen a movie that is rated NC When filmmakers get a more restrictive rating than they were hoping for, they may resubmit the film for review after editing out objectionable scenes Dick, The New War Film: A spate of military and politically themed films emerged during the s as America recovered from defeat in Vietnam, while at the same time facing anxieties about the ongoing Cold War with the Soviet Union.
Fears about the possibility of nuclear war were very real during the s, and some film critics argue that these anxieties were reflected not only in overtly political films of the time but also in the popularity of horror films, like Halloween and Friday the 13th, which feature a mysterious and unkillable monster, and in the popularity of the fantastic in films like E.
Sometimes the influence is trivial, as in the case of fashion trends or figures of speech. After the release of Flashdance infor instance, torn T-shirts and leg warmers became hallmarks of the fashion of the s Pemberton-Sikes, However, sometimes the impact can be profound, leading to social or political reform, or the shaping of ideologies.
Film and the Rise of Mass Culture During the s and up until aboutAmerican culture experienced a period of rapid industrialization. As people moved from farms to centers of industrial production, urban areas began to hold larger and larger concentrations of the population. At the same time, film and other methods of mass communication advertising and radio developed, whose messages concerning tastes, desires, customs, speech, and behavior spread from these population centers to outlying areas across the country.
The effect of early mass-communication media was to wear away regional differences and create a more homogenized, standardized culture. Film played a key role in this development, as viewers began to imitate the speech, dress, and behavior of their common heroes on the silver screen Mintz, Fans became obsessed with the off-screen lives of their favorite celebrities, like Pearl White, Florence Lawrence, and Mary Pickford Doyle, American Myths and Traditions American identity in mass society is built around certain commonly held beliefs, or myths about shared experiences, and these American myths are often disseminated through or reinforced by film.
One example of a popular American myth, one that dates back to the writings of Thomas Jefferson and other founders, is an emphasis on individualism—a celebration of the common man or woman as a hero or reformer.
8.3 Movies and Culture
With the rise of mass culture, the myth of the individual became increasingly appealing because it provided people with a sense of autonomy and individuality in the face of an increasingly homogenized culture. The Golden Age of Hollywood was over. American counterculture inspired Hollywood to take greater risks with new alternative filmmakers.
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This era also saw the advent of VHS video players, laser disc players, and films on video cassette tapes and discs, which greatly increased profits and revenue for studios. However, this new option to view movies at home once again caused a decrease in theater attendance. This decade is recognized as the introduction of high concept films that could be easily described in 25 words or less, which made the movies of this time more marketable, understandable, and culturally accessible.
Many studios sought to capitalize on advancements in special effects technology, instead of taking risks on experimental or thought-provoking concepts.
The future of film looked precarious as production costs increased and ticket prices continued to drop. But although the outlook was bleak, films such as Return of the Jedi, Terminator, and Batman were met with unexpected success.
Due to the use of special effects, the budget of film production increased and consequently launched the names of many actors into overblown stardom. International big business eventually took financial control over many movies, which allowed foreign interests to own properties in Hollywood.
Movies and Culture – Understanding Media and Culture: An Introduction to Mass Communication
To save money, more and more films started to launch production in overseas locations. Multi-national industry conglomerates bought out many studios, including Columbia and 20th Century Fox.
Overall theater attendance was up due to new multiscreen Cineplex complexes throughout the United States. Use of special effects for violent scenes such as car chases and gunfights in high-budget films was a primary appeal for many moviegoers. Meanwhile, pressure on studio executives to make ends meet while creating hit movies was on the rise.
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In Hollywood, movies were becoming exorbitantly expensive to make due to higher costs for movie stars, agency fees, rising production costs, advertising campaigns, and crew threats to strike. These paved the way for movies on DVD, which hit stores by The made-for-TV movie Brian's Song was also briefly released to theatres after its success on television, and was even remade in In some instances, television movies of the period had more explicit content included in the versions prepared to be exhibited theatrically in Europe.
Many television movies released in the s were a source of controversy, such as Linda Blair 's film Born Innocent and 's Sarah T. Portrait of a Teenage Runaway and its sequelAlexander: Another significant film was Elizabeth Montgomery 's portrayal of a rape victim in the drama A Case of Rape If These Walls Could Talka film which deals with abortion in three different decades the s, the s and the s became a huge success, and was HBO 's highest rated film on record.
If a network orders a two-hour television pilot for a proposed show, it will usually broadcast it as a television movie to recoup some of the costs even if the network chooses to not order the show to series. For example, Babylon 5: The Gathering launched the science fiction series Babylon 5 and is considered to be distinct from the show's regular run of one-hour episodes.
Babylon 5 also has several made-for-TV movie sequels set within the same fictional continuity. The remake of Battlestar Galactica began as a two-part miniseries that later continued as a weekly television program.
Another example is the Showtime movie Sabrina, the Teenage Witchwhich launched the sitcom of the same name that originally aired on ABC, and used the same actress Melissa Joan Hart for the lead role in both. Occasionally, television movies are used as sequels to successful theatrical films. For example, only the first film in The Parent Trap series was released theatrically. These types of films may be, and more commonly are, released direct-to-video ; there have been some films, such as The Dukes of Hazzard: Michener's Texaswhich have been released near simultaneously on DVD and on television, but have never been released in theatres.
Made-for-TV movie musicals have also become popular. One prime example is the High School Musical serieswhich aired its first two films on the Disney Channel.