Briseis - Wikipedia
The Relation between Agamemnon and Achilles in the Iliad by Homer and the Movie Troy by. Wolfgang Petersen. Birol Çapa. Brisēís also known as Hippodameia (Greek: Ἱπποδάμεια, [hippodámeːa]), was a mythical queen in Asia Minor at the time of the Trojan War. Her character lies at the heart of a dispute between Achilles and Agamemnon that drives the plot of Homer's In the Iliad, Achilles likens their relationship to that of man and wife (he often. Agamemnon and Achilles are solemnly reconciled: the speeches, presents, and ceremonies on that occasion. Achilles is with great difficulty persuaded to refrain .
Guided by the oracle, he arrived at Argoswhere Achilles healed him in order that he might become their guide for the voyage to Troy. Achilles refused, claiming to have no medical knowledge. Alternatively, Telephus held Orestes for ransom, the ransom being Achilles' aid in healing the wound. Odysseus reasoned that the spear had inflicted the wound; therefore, the spear must be able to heal it.
Pieces of the spear were scraped off onto the wound and Telephus was healed. Had Troilus lived to adulthood, the First Vatican Mythographer claimed, Troy would have been invincible.
The first two lines of the Iliad read: The Homeric epic only covers a few weeks of the decade-long war, and does not narrate Achilles' death. It begins with Achilles' withdrawal from battle after being dishonoured by Agamemnonthe commander of the Achaean forces.
Agamemnon has taken a woman named Chryseis as his slave. Her father Chrysesa priest of Apollobegs Agamemnon to return her to him. Agamemnon refuses, and Apollo sends a plague amongst the Greeks.
The prophet Calchas correctly determines the source of the troubles but will not speak unless Achilles vows to protect him. Achilles does so, and Calchas declares that Chryseis must be returned to her father. Agamemnon consents, but then commands that Achilles' battle prize Briseisthe daughter of Briseusbe brought to him to replace Chryseis.
Angry at the dishonour of having his plunder and glory taken away and, as he says later, because he loves Briseis with the urging of his mother Thetis, Achilles refuses to fight or lead his troops alongside the other Greek forces.
At the same time, burning with rage over Agamemnon's theft, Achilles prays to Thetis to convince Zeus to help the Trojans gain ground in the war, so that he may regain his honour. As the battle turns against the Greeks, thanks to the influence of Zeus, Nestor declares that the Trojans are winning because Agamemnon has angered Achilles, and urges the king to appease the warrior.
Achilles and Patroclus - Wikipedia
Agamemnon agrees and sends Odysseus and two other chieftains, Ajax and Phoenixto Achilles with the offer of the return of Briseis and other gifts.
Achilles rejects all Agamemnon offers him and simply urges the Greeks to sail home as he was planning to do. With the Greek forces on the verge of absolute destruction, Patroclus leads the Myrmidons into battle, wearing Achilles' armour, though Achilles remains at his camp. Patroclus succeeds in pushing the Trojans back from the beaches, but is killed by Hector before he can lead a proper assault on the city of Troy. After receiving the news of the death of Patroclus from Antilochusthe son of Nestor, Achilles grieves over his beloved companion's death.
His mother Thetis comes to comfort the distraught Achilles. She persuades Hephaestus to make new armour for him, in place of the armour that Patroclus had been wearing, which was taken by Hector. The new armour includes the Shield of Achillesdescribed in great detail in the poem.
Enraged over the death of Patroclus, Achilles ends his refusal to fight and takes the field, killing many men in his rage but always seeking out Hector. Achilles even engages in battle with the river god Scamanderwho has become angry that Achilles is choking his waters with all the men he has killed.
The god tries to drown Achilles but is stopped by Hera and Hephaestus. Zeus himself takes note of Achilles' rage and sends the gods to restrain him so that he will not go on to sack Troy itself before the time allotted for its destruction, seeming to show that the unhindered rage of Achilles can defy fate itself. Finally, Achilles finds his prey. Achilles chases Hector around the wall of Troy three times before Athenain the form of Hector's favorite and dearest brother, Deiphobuspersuades Hector to stop running and fight Achilles face to face.
After Hector realizes the trick, he knows the battle is inevitable. Wanting to go down fighting, he charges at Achilles with his only weapon, his sword, but misses. Accepting his fate, Hector begs Achilles, not to spare his life, but to treat his body with respect after killing him.
Achilles tells Hector it is hopeless to expect that of him, declaring that "my rage, my fury would drive me now to hack your flesh away and eat you raw — such agonies you have caused me". After having a dream where Patroclus begs Achilles to hold his funeral, Achilles hosts a series of funeral games in his honour. Achilles relents and promises a truce for the duration of the funeral. The poem ends with a description of Hector's funeral, with the doom of Troy and Achilles himself still to come.
When Penthesileaqueen of the Amazons and daughter of Aresarrives in Troy, Priam hopes that she will defeat Achilles. After his temporary truce with Priam, Achilles fights and kills the warrior queen, only to grieve over her death later.
Once he realized that his distraction was endangering his life, he refocused and killed her. Following the death of Patroclus, Nestor's son Antilochus becomes Achilles' closest companion. When Memnonson of the Dawn Goddess Eos and king of Ethiopiaslays Antilochus, Achilles once more obtains revenge on the battlefield, killing Memnon.
Consequently, Eos will not let the sun rise, until Zeus persuades her. The fight between Achilles and Memnon over Antilochus echoes that of Achilles and Hector over Patroclus, except that Memnon unlike Hector was also the son of a goddess. Many Homeric scholars argued that episode inspired many details in the Iliad's description of the death of Patroclus and Achilles' reaction to it.
The episode then formed the basis of the cyclic epic Aethiopiswhich was composed after the Iliad, possibly in the 7th century BC. He argues that while a modern reader is inclined to interpret the portrayal of these intense same-sex male warrior friendships as being fundamentally homoerotic, it is important to consider the greater themes of these relationships: The thematic insistence on mutuality and the merging of individual identities, although it may invoke in the minds of modern readers the formulas of heterosexual romantic love […] in fact situates avowals of reciprocal love between male friends in an honorable, even glamorous tradition of heroic comradeship: This can explain the overtones in Book 19 of the Iliad wherein Achilles mourns Patroclus lines — in a similar manner used previously by Briseis lines — Shay places a strong emphasis on the relationships that soldiers who experience combat together forge, and points out that this kind of loss has in fact often led to "berserking" of soldiers stunned with grief and rage, in a way similar to the raging of Achilles in the Iliad.
Shay points out that a frequent topos in veterans' grief for a companion is that companion's gentleness or innocence; similarly, while a warrior of great note, Patroclus is said in the Iliad by other soldiers and by Briseis the captive to have been gentle and kind.
Classical tradition[ edit ] William Shakespeare 's play Troilus and Cressida depicts Achilles and Patroclus as lovers.
Achilles and Patroclus
Elizabeth Cook's verse novel, Achilles, is not sexually explicit, but a romantic relationship can be inferred. She writes of Achilles, "He also knows the body of his cousin Patroclus. The relationship is intensely intimate, and certainly exceeds the common bounds of friendship. The film Troy presented Patroclus as a younger relative of Achilles, without any romantic or sexual aspects. The musical Spring Awakeningincludes an offhand reference where one boy, Hanschen, entreats another, Ernst to 'do a little Achilles and Patroclus'.
The two characters are later shown engaging in a homosexual relationship. In Christa Wolf 's novel CassandraAchilles is depicted as a somewhat conflicted homosexual male, one who would go after both a young man, whom he actually desired, and a young woman, to prove he was like everyone else. Patroclus is briefly mentioned as the sole man who could get Achilles to feel truly passionate about defeating Troy, and upon his death Achilles butchered several Troy captives — including two royal children — as a sacrifice.
In Iliumby Dan SimmonsAchilles and Patroclus share a close "brothers in war" type bond, but are also shown to engage in group sexeach with a woman and possibly each other. Byrne Fone's novel Achilles: During this period, Agamemnon and his brother, Menelaustook refuge with TyndareusKing of Sparta.
There they respectively married Tyndareus' daughters Clytemnestra and Helen. Agamemnon and Clytemnestra had four children: Menelaus succeeded Tyndareus in Sparta, while Agamemnon, with his brother's assistance, drove out Aegisthus and Thyestes to recover his father's kingdom. He extended his dominion by conquest and became the most powerful prince in Greece.
Thus misfortune hounded successive generations of the House of Atreusuntil atoned by Orestes in a court of justice held jointly by humans and gods. Trojan War Agamemnon gathered the reluctant Greek forces to sail for Troy.
Preparing to depart from Ancient Greece, which was a port in Boeotia, Agamemnon's army incurred the wrath of the goddess Artemis. There are several reasons throughout myth for such wrath: Misfortunes, including a plague and a lack of wind, prevented the army from sailing.
Finally, the prophet Calchas announced that the wrath of the goddess could only be propitiated by the sacrifice of Agamemnon's daughter Iphigenia. Achilles ' surrender of Briseis to Agamemnon, from the House of the Tragic Poet in Pompeiifresco, 1st century AD, now in the Naples National Archaeological Museum Classical dramatizations differ on how willing either father or daughter was to this fate; some include such trickery as claiming she was to be married to Achillesbut Agamemnon did eventually sacrifice Iphigenia.
Her death appeased Artemis, and the Greek army set out for Troy. Several alternatives to the human sacrifice have been presented in Greek mythology. Other sources, such as Iphigenia at Aulissay that Agamemnon was prepared to kill his daughter, but that Artemis accepted a deer in her place, and whisked her away to Tauris in the Crimean Peninsula.
Hesiod said she became the goddess Hecate.